“Peace is the virtue of civilization, the war – her crime”
V. M. Gugo
Antoine Perrino de Granvelle belonged to the top of the Burgundian aristocracy. His father was a brilliant lawyer and was awarded a special relation of the Emperor Charles V.
Antoine Granvelle studied law from 1530 to 1550 in Paris. Later on, the future Minister studied on theology in Lviv, took Holy order. In 1540 he was appointed Bishop at the age of 23. Through the influence of his father he began to engage in public activities. This work helped to develop his diplomatic skills and to become acquainted with the political situation in Europe.
After the battle of Muhlberg in 1547, he demonstrated diplomatic talant during the peace negotiations with Johann Friedrich of Saxony and Philip of Hesse.
Thanks to the activities Granvella were prevented many wars.
In 1550 after the death of his father, Antoine Granvelle was appointed by the Emperor to the position of Secretary of state. In the spring of 1552 he, along with Charles V fled from Innsbruck due to the approaching troops Moritz of Saxony. But diplomatic talent of Granvelle helped this time. In August 1550, was a peace Treaty signed.
Next year Granvelle was negotiating with England. The result of the negotiations – the wedding of Mary English with the Emperor’s son, Philip. When Philip was crowned, he left Granvelle as the Minister.
In 1560 Granvella was appointed Archbishop Mechlinski and received the title of cardinal.
Impressed by the diplomatic successes of Granola, Philip II sent him in 1560 in the Netherlands as chief adviser of his aunt Margaret of Austria. Feeling that due to the spread of the reformation, the situation in the country is heating up, Granvella believed necessary tightening measures and the adoption of energetic solutions to combat “heretical contagion”. In the state Council of the Netherlands, he was as the opposition to Prince William, who persuaded the king to move he in Italy.
Soon after it, the Minister asked Philip II permission to leave the Netherlands and went to Besancon, where for six years he was engaged in scientific activity. But he continued to perform the functions of the Minister.
Philip II trusted Granvella and regretted the fact that he allowed the Minister to pay more attention to science.
Philip II always regretted this decision, believing that the preservation of Granvella in the Netherlands would have prevented the revolt of the provinces. In Italy, the cardinal negotiated about creating a “Holy League” against the Turks, which culminated in the victory of Lepanto. In 1571-1575, he held the post of Vice-king of Naples, 1575-1579, headed by the Italian Council.
In the last years of his life Antoine Granvelle was very sick. But he continued to engage in public affairs. He presented to the Royal court Flemish Anthony Mora and brought in Madrid collection of works by Bruegel, which was highly valued. His last diplomatic victory became the dynastic Union of the Spanish and Portuguese crowns.
Granovela acted as cardinal until the end of his life.
According to historians, Antoine Granvelle was ambitious. He was an outstanding statesman, was tireless in work, strong character, courage and unwavering devotion to the king. Granvella was one of the most educated people of that time, he was a patron of scholars and artists. Thanks to his assistance in Italy and Sicily were found many archaeological treasures that have been carefully described.
“Win – stupid lesson. Not to win, but to convince, it is worthy of the glory”