The great sir Winston Churchill
“Power is a drug. Who tried it at least once poisoned by it forever”
Winston Churchill was a politician and statesman, and Nobel prize for literature journalist and honorary member of the British Academy.
The childhood of the future policy
Winston Churchill was born on 30 November 1874 at the family estate of the Dukes of Marlborough-Blenheim Palace. Father of Churchill, Lord Randolph Henry Spencer Churchill, the third son of the 7th Duke of Marlborough, was a famous politician, member of the House of Commons from the Conservative party, he held the position of Chancellor of the exchequer. Mother lady Randolph Churchill, nee Jennie Jerome, was the daughter of a wealthy americangovernment.
As a father, a busy political career, and his mother, passionate about social life, paid little attention to his son. A year child care was entrusted to a nanny, Elizabeth Anne Everest. She genuinely loved the pupil, and was one of the closest to Churchill’s people.
28 June 1893 Churchill on the third attempt passed the exams at the Royal military College at Sandhurst(the difficulties with written work in Latin), one of the most prestigious schools in the UK. Due to low ratings (92nd result of 102) he became a cadet trooper and got a transfer to a more prestigious infantry class due to the fact that several candidates with the best results, refused admission.
In Sandhurst he studied from September, 1893-December 1894, finishing school in the twentieth edition of 130 (according to other sources – the eighth edition of 150). 20 February 1895 Winston Churchill was awarded the rank of second Lieutenant.
In the same year he suffered two heavy losses: in January, his father died, and in July from peritonitis death of his beloved nanny.
Military service and the first literary experiments
After receiving the rank, Churchill was enrolled in the 4th hussar regiment of Her Majesty. Perhaps it was then that he realized that a military career is not very attractive.
In 1895 Churchill was sent to Cuba as a war correspondent of the “daily Schedule” to cover the uprising of the local population against the Spaniards, but continued to serve on active duty. Assigned to the Spanish army, he visited for the first time under fire. The newspaper published five articles, some of which were reprinted by the new York times. Articles were welcomed by readers favorably.
The Spanish government awarded him the medal of the Red cross, and this has given the popularity of Churchill scandalous because he led the British press to question the neutrality of the reporter. In addition to awards and literary fame he had acquired in Cuba two habits that accompanied him all his life: Smoking Cuban cigars and Siesta. On the way back to England Churchill visited the United States.
In October 1896, the regiment was sent to India and based in Bangalore. Churchill read a lot, trying thus to compensate for the lack of University education, and is one of the best players regiment Polo. According to the memoirs of his subordinates, he diligently performed the officer’s duties and spent a lot of time training with soldiers and sergeants, but routine service weighed upon him.
In the autumn of 1897 he achieves a secondment to the expeditionary force sent to suppress the rebellion of the Pashtun tribes (primarily Makhmads) in the mountainous area of Malakand, North-West of the country. This campaign was much more violent and dangerous than the Cuban. During the operation, Churchill showed unconditional bravery.
In a letter addressed to my grandmother, the Duchess of Marlborough, he was equally critical of both sides for the violence, and the campaign for futility.
Best letters were published in “the Daily Telegraph”, and at the end of the campaign with a circulation of 8,500 copies was published his book “History Malacandra field corps”. Due to the hasty preparation for publication in the book crept huge number of typographical errors, Churchill counted more than 200 typos and since then has always demanded from the typesetters to submit proofs for personal checks.
Safely back from Malakand, Churchill immediately begins to make a trip to North Africa, to highlight suppression mahdists uprising sudane. The desire to go to another journalistic mission did not meet with understanding command, and he wrote directly to the Prime Minister,Lord Salisbury, honestly admitting that the motives of the trip are as a desire to illuminate the historical moment, and the ability to extract personal, including financial benefit from the publication of the book. In the war Department granted the request, assigning it a USSR on the position of Lieutenant, in the order of appointment it was emphasized that in the event of injury or death, he can not rely on payments from the funds of the Ministry of defence.
Although on the side of the rebels were outnumbered, the Union of the Anglo-Egyptian army had an overwhelming technological advantage – repeating small arms, artillery, gunboats and the latest novelty at the time – a Maxim machine guns. In General the battle of Omdurman Churchill took part in the last cavalry charge of the British army.
Churchill repeatedly himself was present on the battlefield as a soldier and journalist and was awarded many awards.
In the reports he criticized the commander of the English troops, his future colleague in the Cabinet of General Kitchener for the mistreatment of prisoners and wounded and for disrespecting local customs. in particular, funerary monument of his chief opponent. “He was a great General, but nobody had ever accused him that he is a great gentleman said about him Churchill in a private conversation, apt description, however, quickly became public. Although criticism was largely fair and public reaction to it was mixed, the position of publicist and accuser were poorly aligned with the duty of a Junior officer.
After a campaign Churchill returned to India to participate in the national tournament Polo. During a brief stop in England several times he speaks at rallies conservatives. Almost immediately after the end of the tournament, which his team won, beating in a bitter final match, in March 1899 he goes into retirement.
Political career before the First world war
In July 1900, Churchill returned to England and soon announced his candidacy from Oldham (Lancashire). In addition to the hero’s reputation and promises to voters, it helped that the engineer Dewsnap, helped him, was a native of Oldham, and Churchill did not forget to mention it in his campaign speeches. He defeated the candidate of the liberals on 222 votes and 26 years for the first time became a member of the House of Commons. At the election the conservatives won a majority and became the ruling party.
In the same year he published his only major work of fiction, the novel “Savrola”. Many Churchill biographers and literary critics believe that the way Savroli – the protagonist of the novel – the author has painted himself.
18 February 1901 he delivered his first speech in the House of Commons of the postwar settlement in South Africa. He called to show mercy to the defeated Boers, “to help them come to terms with defeat.” It made an impression, and uttered the phrase “if I were brown, I hope that I would fight on the field of battle”, later used, paraphrasing, many politicians.
may 13, he suddenly made a sharp criticism of the project increased spending on the army, presented by the defense Minister Brodacom (eng. William Brodrick). Unusual was not the only criticism of the Cabinet, formed their own party, but also the fact that Churchill had previously forwarded the text of a speech to the editor of “the morning post”. This conflicts the young MP from his own party hasn’t ended. In 1902-1903 he repeatedly expressed disagreement on the issues of free trade (Churchill opposed the introduction of import duties on grain) and colonial policy. Against this background, the transition to Liberal party 31 may 1904 looked quite logical step.
12 December 1905 Winston Churchill was appointed Deputy Minister for the colonies (the position of the Minister was occupied by Lord Elgin) in the government of Campbell-Bannerman, in this capacity, he was engaged in the elaboration of a Constitution for the defeated Boer republics.
In April 1908 in connection with the sharply deteriorating health Campbell-Bannerman becomes unable to perform the duties of Prime Minister and Cabinet is the number of permutations. Churchill became Minister of trade and industry. Churchill advocated the reduction of the state and, in particular, military spending.
Churchill was a staunch supporter of social reform, conducted by the office of Asquith, in 1908, he became the initiator of the minimum wage law. The law, passed by an overwhelming majority, for the first time in England was established norms of working hours and wages.
The Minister of internal Affairs
February 14, 1910 at the age of 35 years, Churchill’s Minister of internal Affairs, one of the most influential posts. At the same time he left a literary career, returning to it only in 1923.
Tenure as Minister became one of the most difficult and controversial steps in the political career of Winston Churchill. This period was marked by mass demonstrations of workers and the actions of the suffragettes. The actions of Churchill for the suppression of riots has been repeatedly criticised from all sides of the political spectrum, moreover, as interior Minister he was responsible even when personally did not intervene.
However, deteriorating relations with Germany prompted Churchill to deal with foreign policy issues. Ideas and information received from military experts, Churchill made a Memorandum on “military aspects of continental problems” and handed it to the Prime Minister. This document was the undoubted success of Churchill. He testified that Churchill, with a very modest military education, which gave him the school of cavalry officers, was able to quickly and professionally to understand a number of important military issues.
In October 1911 the Prime Minister Asquith suggested Churchill as First Lord of the Admiralty, and on October 23, he was officially appointed to this position.
Political activity of 10 years broke literary achievements Churchill.
The First Lord Of The Admiralty
Formally, the transition to the Admiralty was lowering the Ministry of internal Affairs was considered one of the three most important government institutions. However, Churchill without hesitation accepted the offer of Asquith, Navy, always was one of the most important instruments of British geopolitics, this period was one of the biggest upgrades in its history.
Naval arms race, which began at the turn of XIX-XX centuries, and accelerated after the launching of the first dreadnought in 1906, for the first time in a long time, has created a situation where the superiority of the British fleet, both quantitative and qualitative, began to threaten not only the traditional rivals Germany andfrance, but also the United States.
The expenditure on the Navy were the largest cost clause of the British budget. Churchill was assigned to carry out reforms while increasing cost-effectiveness. Resulting changes were very large-scale organized the main staff of the Navy established naval aviation, designed and laid warships of new types.
Thus, according to initial plans, the shipbuilding program of 1912 was supposed to be 4 superior battleship type “Iron Duke”. However, the new First Lord of the Admiralty ordered to revise the design of the main calibre 15 inches, despite the fact that design work on the creation of such tools have not even been completed. The result was a string of very good type battleships Queen Elizabeth.
One of the most important decisions was the translation of the Navy from coal to oil fuel. Despite the obvious advantages, marine Department for a long time opposed this step, for strategic reasons – rich coal Britain had absolutely no oil reserves. In order to transfer fleet oil became possible, Churchill initiated the allocation of 2.2 million pounds on the acquisition of a 51 % stake in the Anglo-Iranian oil company.
In addition to the purely technical aspects, the decision had far-reaching political consequences of the Persian Gulf region has become a zone of strategic interests of the UK. The Chairman of the Royal Commission on the transfer of the fleet to liquid fuel was Lord Fisher, a prominent British Admiral. Joint work of Churchill and Fisher ended in may 1915 in view of the categorical disagreement with the last landing on Gallipoli.
The First World War
The UK officially entered the First world war on August 3, 1914, on 28 July, the day when Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, Churchill ordered the fleet to run for the positions off the coast of England, permission was obtained from the Prime Minister retroactively.
October 5, Churchill arrived in Antwerp and personally led the defense of the city, which the Belgian government offered to surrender to the Germans. Despite all efforts, the city fell on 10 October, killing 2,500 soldiers. Churchill was accused of unnecessary waste of resources and lives, although many noted that the defense of Antwerp has helped to keep Calais and Dunkirk.
As chair of the Commission on land ships” Churchill took part in the development of the first tank and the creation of Panzer troops.
In 1915 he became one of the initiators of the Dardanelles operations, ended disastrously for the allied troops and caused a government crisis.
Responsible for the fiasco Churchill largely took over, and when it formed a new coalition government, has conservatoriamilano his resignation from the post of first Lord of the Admiralty. For several months he served as a sinecure Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, and November 15, resigned and went to the Western Front, where the rank of Colonel he commanded the 6th battalion Royal Scottish Fusiliers, occasionally visited the Parliament to participate in the debate. In may 1916 he took the command, and finally returned to England.
In July 1917 he was appointed Minister of armaments, and in January 1919 – war Minister and Minister of aviation. He became one of the architects of the so-called “Decade of the establishment” – doctrine, according to which the military construction and military budget should be planned so that Britain will not be involved in a major conflict within ten years after the war.
The Second World War
September 1, 1939 Germany invaded Poland and started world war II. September 3, at 11 a.m. in the war officially joined the United Kingdom, and within 10 days and all the British Commonwealth. On the same day Winston Churchill was invited to take the post of First Lord of the Admiralty with voting rights in the Military Council.
Despite the fact that on the land after the defeat of the Polish army and the surrender of Poland active hostilities was not conducted, was the so-called “strange war”, fighting at sea almost immediately moved into an active phase.
Мay 7, 1940 in the House of Commons held hearings on the defeat in the Battle for Norway, the next day there was a vote on the issue of trust in government. Despite having received a formal vote of confidence, Chamberlain decided to resign, due to sharp criticism, which has been the policy of the Cabinet, and a small (81 votes) advantage in the vote.
Most candidates were considered Churchill and Lord Halifax. may 9 at the meeting, which was attended Chamberlain, Churchill, Lord Halifax and parliamentary coordinator of government David Margesson, Halifax refused the position, and on 10 may 1940 George VI was officially appointed Churchill as Prime Minister. Churchill received the position, not as the leader of the party that won the elections, and the result of the confluence of emergency.
Many historians and contemporaries considered the most important merit of Churchill’s determination to continue the war until victory, despite the fact that several members of his Cabinet, including foreign Minister Lord Halifax, was in favor of trying to reach agreements with Nazi Germany. In his first speech on 13 may in the House of Commons as Prime Minister, Churchill said: “I have nothing to offer to the British, but blood, toil, tears and sweat”.
As one of the first steps on the post of Prime Minister Churchill has founded and was appointed Minister of defense, concentrated in the same hands the management of military actions and coordination between the Navy, army and air force, subject to the fact different ministries.
In mid-June 1940 began the Battle of Britain – the massive German air raids, initially on military targets, primarily airfields, and then order the bombing began and the English city.
Churchill made regular visits bombing, met with victims, from may 1940 to December 1941 he appeared on radio 21 times, his performances have heard more than 70 percent of Britons. The popularity of Churchill as Prime Minister was unprecedented, in July 1940 he was supported by 84 percent of the population, and this figure remained almost until the end of the war.
August 12, 1941, on Board the battleship “Prince of Wales” is a meeting of Churchill and Roosevelt. Within three days the policy has produced the text of the Atlantic Charter. After there were numerous meetings between Roosevelt, Stalin and Churchill, discussing the progress and results of the war.
The three world leaders have met several times during the Second World War.
After the War
When a close victory over Germany became apparent, wife and family advised Churchill to retire, leaving the political activity on the summit of fame, but he decided to participate in the elections, which were scheduled for may 1945. Unfortunately, Churchill lost the election. This gave him the opportunity to return to writing.
The status of celebrities have helped to conclude a number of contracts with periodicals such as the “life”magazine, newspaper “daily Telegraph” and “The New York Times” other widowski publishers. During this period, Churchill began to work on one of the major autobiographical works – “the Second world war, the first volume of which went on sale on 4 October 1948.
on 5 March 1946 at Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri, USA) Churchill gave became famous Fotoscoy speech, which is considered the starting point of the cold war.
September 19, speaking at the University of Zurich, Churchill gave a speech where he called former enemies – Germany, France and Britain – to reconciliation and the creation of a “United States of Europe”.
In August 1949, Churchill had his first minor heart attack, and after five months during a tense election campaign 1950, when he began to complain of “haze”, the personal doctor diagnosed him with “a spasm of cerebral vessels”.
In October 1951, when Winston Churchill again became Prime Minister at the age of 76, his health and ability to perform their duties were warned of serious concern. In February 1952 he apparently suffered another stroke and for several months he has lost the ability to speak coherently. In June 1953 the attack has repeated it for a few months paralyzed on the left side. Despite this, Churchill refused to resign, or at least go to the House of lords, retaining his post of Prime Minister in name only.
Churchill died on 24 January 1965. By order of the Queen it was arranged wires on the highest state level in the Cathedral of St. Paul. In accordance with the wishes of the policy he was buried in the cemetery in Blaydon, near Blenheim Palace. The funeral ceremony was held on the script, pre-written by Churchill.
“In my country the authorities are proud of the fact that they are servants of the state; to be his master would be considered a disgrace”