The Spanish conqueror Francisco Pizarro
“The easiest people give out their intentions when they do not succeed”
Illegitimate son of a Spanish military, Francisco Pizarro in his youth entered the Royal military service. In the New World (America), he appeared in 1502, having started to serve in the military detachment of the Governor of Hispaniola (Santo Domingo).
In 1513 Francisco Pizarro took part in the military expedition of Vasco de Balboa in Panama, during which the Spaniards discovered the Pacific ocean. From 1519 to 1523, the year he lived in Panama as a colonist, he was elected magistrate and mayor of this city and managed to gain a small fortune.
Intrigued by the rumours of not known to Europeans Indian civilization and its untold riches, enterprising Pizarro began to act. Panama mayor when he partners such as adventurers, as he, Diego de Almagro and the priest Hernando de Luca, and Neverova a detachment of Spaniards, organized two military expeditions (1524-1525 and 1526-1528 years) along the Pacific coast of present-day Colombia and Ecuador.
However, the expedition led had no success. After the second military expedition, the Governor of Panama refused to support a costly venture Francisco Pizarro. When there was no money and food, them military detachment broke up . The Governor ordered the Spaniards to return to Panama.
Under the command of Pizarro was only twelve people, including Diego de Almagro. They believed in their leader.
With these twelve adventurer Francisco Pizarro managed to find the Inca Empire. A great adventurer with victory returned to Panama.
However Francisco Pizarro, to his surprise, did not receive support from the local Governor. Then persistent Pizarro sailed to Spain, where he gained an audience with king Charles V. He was not easily able to convince the Spanish monarch to give him money for the organization aggressive campaign.
After receiving the money, Francisco Pizarro in 1530 he returned to Panama with the rank of captain-General, with the family crest and the right to Governor over all the land South of Panama. But these lands he still had to win for the Spanish crown. However, it didn’t bother adventurer – Pizarro believed in his luck.
In January 1531 General-captain Francisco Pizarro embarked on his third expedition for the conquest of the Inca Empire. He sailed from Panama on three small sailing ships to the South. He was with his brothers and his faithful companions on the second expedition and a Catholic priest-missionary Hernando de Luca.
The gold of the Incas sought to conquer many adventurers.
Squad Francisco Pizarro moved South along the coast of the Pacific ocean, towards the modern city of Tumbes.
However, Pizarro knew that his strength is very small, especially firearms. On the loot at the beginning of the hike gold he decided to hire more Spanish soldiers and to buy more weapons. Pizarro sent two expeditionary ship to the North, one in Panama, and the other in Nicaragua.
Because force was much smaller, he and his troops crossed on the third ship on the island of Puno, South of Mombasa. So by June 1532 in South America appeared first Spanish military base, called San Miguel de Piura. Some time later the messengers returned to Nicaragua ship, which arrived the long awaited reinforcements numbering about a hundred people.
He learned much about the country that wanted to win. The capital of the Inca state was well-fortified city of Cuzco (Peru), located high in the mountains the Andes. The Inca capital was defended by the fortress of Saxo, which had a defensive shaft height of 10 meters.
Time when in possession of the Incas, the Spaniards led by Francisco Pizarro, there only ended in bloody internecine war between the two leaders, which greatly weakened the country.
Francisco Pizarro was one of the most successful generals who fought against the Inca.
To the surprise of Pizarro, the Indians did not protected him mountain trails and passes. November 15, 1532, the Spaniards, having covered peaks of the Andes, freely entered into left local residents of the city of Caxamarca and strengthened in him. Before the city was already in marching camp great army leader.
Francisco Pizarro on the example of Cortez and many other Spanish conquerors acted decisively. He invited me to his negotiations Atahualpa. But Conquistador ordered the Spaniards suddenly attack the guard Supreme Inca.
The capture of high Incas had a deleterious effect on the fate of his Empire. Dissatisfied with the rule of the Incas Indian tribes rebelled, reiterated his followers beheaded the enemy leader. Huge country embraced anarchy, and anarchy. The Spaniards it was only on hand. Pissarro was executed captive leader.
Then the Spaniards freely entered the capital of the Incan Empire, Cusco. General-captain of the Spanish king acted as an experienced conqueror. He immediately put at the head of the conquered Indian state puppet ruler Manco is brother Huascar. So the civil war between the sons of the Supreme Inca leader Huayna kapaka led to the collapse of the great state. Take some time and Manco after jumping in 1535 in the mountains, began to raise the Inca to war against the Spaniards.
So a small army of Spanish conquerors in just a few years conquered a vast territory inhabited by the Incas and under them Indian tribes. Francisco Pizarro became the Royal Governor of the vast possessions in South America are most part of modern Peru and Ecuador, Northern Chile and parts of Bolivia.
Huge Inca Empire came from time to time in full obedience to the General captain of the king of Spain. In 1535 by Francisco Pizarro, leaving in the Incan capital of Cuzco managing his brother Juan, gave a part of his army to the shores of the Pacific ocean. There he decided to found the city of Lima, the “city of kings”. The basis of the port city of Lima has become a kind of triumph of the great Spanish conqueror.
Now the Governor of the former Inca Empire had its own capital. The city was built on a deserted ocean shore in a very short time and became the stronghold of the Spanish Kingdom on the Pacific coast of South America for several centuries.
However, the invaders waited far from clear rule in the conquered Indian country. Fled from Cuzco puppet Supreme Inca operated successfully. For several months he was able to collect thousands of the army, and in February 1536 besieged the capital. The siege of Cuzco lasted six months. Small Spanish garrison was weary of fighting fires that Incan warriors were made by throwing incandescent stones wrapped with waxed cotton.
As fate willed, Francisco Pizarro died not at the hands of Indian warriors, but soldiers whom he made rich.
The army of Indians, not accustomed to a long siege, gradually began to disperse. Manco, and were not able to attack or long siege of Cuzco, was forced with the remnants of his soldiers to withdraw to the mountains. He continued to carry out attacks on the invaders, but Francisco Pizarro with the help of the native Indians as enemies of the Incas managed to kill Manco. Having lost their last leader, the Incas ceased organized resistance to the Spaniards.
Soon open armed confrontation began in the very camp of the Spanish conquerors. Diego de Almagro openly accused Francisco Pizarro that he is deprived of his soldiers in the division of the vast treasure of the Incas. Supporters Almagro mutinied.
In 1537 Pizarro, having received reinforcements from Spain, in the battle of Las Salinas defeated a detachment of Almagro, but he himself was taken prisoner. Diego de Almagro was executed.
“Courage is not so easily overcome danger, but to meet it with open eyes”