Experiments of Chinese Legalism. Mysteries of History
The most honest and terrible totalitarian doctrine in the world – Legalism – invented by the ancient Chinese. It would be better if they were limited to silk, porcelain and gunpowder. Although, if you reflect on the social experiments in ISIS, yet it is worth considering which of them more bloodthirsty.
Some Chinese philosophers, describing the transmigration of souls after death in the new body (this idea the Chinese have borrowed from Buddhism, but with very large bills) indicating that the reborn you can not only in the future but in the past, if the lord of the underworld considers that it will be suitable for your punishment. So, if these stories are true, and escaping from the animators, you will open your eyes to the disembodied vislousym host Chinese underworld, begged him as you can promise me anything, but just let it does not send you into the era of Qin! Remember: Qin, IV-III century BC. What would you have in this life has done no such you just do not deserve.
When people enjoy, they become corrupted, and when they corrupted, born lazy, so if you manage people through punishment, they become fearful, and fearful when they do not dare to do evil deeds. If we teach people through justice, they will spoil, and when people are spoiled, collapsing order.
The civilized world would be horrified, watching as millions of Chinese are dying of hunger because all the rice in the country by order of the great leader Mao was put into the ground two feet deeper than it should. The civilized world may chuckle, watching the Chinese chorus chasing sparrows on the orders of the party. The civilized world may be perplexed, wondering where the inhabitants of the Middle Kingdom come from the inexhaustible reserves of humility.
But the civilized world is really just lucky. Most were born on the territory of the great minds who wanted to build an ideal state, died from whooping cough in the cradle (or they were sold into slavery, like Plato, left to rot in prison as Campanella, demolished their heads on the chopping block as Moru).
But Chinese organizers of the ideal state still managed to realize their grand plans.
Guan Zhong, Shang Yang, Li Si – three main ideologue of Legalism, the concept of the State in which the rule of law. The first thinkers laid the basis for the study, the second managed to put it into practice, and a third strongly supported the resulting design afloat. However, the school of “lawyers” has dozens of names and less important.
Legist based on the following provisions:
- Man by nature is greedy, selfish and lazy.
- The meaning of life is to create a strong state and to serve him.
- A strong state can be only when it is all about one person who everyone else obey unquestioningly.
- Word of the ruler – the law for all. He is one above the law.
- The man and the state can be well operated only by fear and pain. For see claim 1.
About two or three hundred years Legist wrote their treatises, waiting for them to turn up the arm ruler, smart enough to appreciate the beauty and simplicity of the proposed doctrine. Fortunately rulers around watching a lot, after all, China was then not a single country, and several constant conflict with each other kingdoms. And in 361 BC in the kingdom under the name of the ruler of Qin Xiao Gong began, a man well-read and familiar with the ideas of Legalism. And he appointed first counselor convinced Legist Shang Yang, who instructed and bring in his kingdom full order
In an exemplary run the state a lot of penalties and few rewards. If the penalty to be applied even after a crime is committed, it is impossible to eradicate the crime, so striving for domination in China must punish even before the offense committed.
There is evidence that one of the first orders issued under the direction of Shang Yang, was put at the disposal of the north gate of the city wooden pole and declare that the one who will bring the pole to the south gate, get 50 catties of gold (about 25 kilograms). Citizens are accustomed wary of government orders, standing around a pole and scratched their heads. Will touch this piece of wood – what if you will be accused of self-interest and chop off something vital? And in general, what kind of a pole why it somewhere drag? Where such awkward size of awards? Not for nothing it all … But there was some gullible simpleton, who hoisted the pole on his shoulder and accompanied by guards and bystanders stomped to the south gate. There he was immediately handed a bag with 50 gold Jing.
The crowd fell into a trance, an unprecedented success story of a simpleton was broadcast throughout the kingdom, and then sought Shang Yang. Thus he made it clear that from now on to government orders, it is desirable to listen very, very carefully, without reflection and discussion, because the words in the wind does not throw the ruler
Another hint was the reaction to the misconduct of the young heir to the throne, who disregarded the fresh law prohibiting wearing festive clothes during the week and appeared at court in costume too festive. Giving his son ruler executioners Shang Yang did not, but ordered to burn penalty stigma on the forehead of a teacher who does not keep track of a teenager. Well, after a punishment for some equally serious sin cut off the nose of kin and friend of Prince, all the kingdom very quickly guessed that the joke was over long times.
When people are weak – a strong state when the state is strong – people are weak. Therefore, the state, reaching the true path, tends to weaken the people.
A unique feature of Legalism was the open declaration of its objectives. Even Egyptian pharaohs and Babylonian Sarah, even the most cruel despotism of the Ancient World is traditionally attributed all his bloody antics concern for the welfare of people. Well, or the will of the gods. Gods jurists interested in a little, and benefit the people they announced naivredneyshey thing. They do not promise people happiness, peace, satiety and prosperity. No way! The logic here was quite different.
The government declared a crown and a measure of all, the governor was also a potter, who raises this kingdom from human clay. The more suffering clay, the harder it crumple and crush, the more perfect will the vessel. Legist just said rich, strong and intelligent person difficult to manage. In the ideal state subjects must be stupid, hungry and miserable. Only then people will not remain his will, his pride and his forces and the society will start to work as a single body, in obedience to the commands from the top without thinking.
And there is no peace! The state is always obliged to fight, because it is only at constant war it is tempered and strengthened, while providing its residents with the level of hunger, cold and fear, which is needed to maintain order
Eloquence and wit contribute to unrest; Ethics and music contribute to laxity of morals; kindness and humanity – the mother of misconduct; appointment and promotion to the post of virtuous people – the source of evil.
What reforms had Xiao Gong Shang Yang with the help?
All the society was divided into twenty ranks. The higher the rank, the more people have incentives – could, for instance, to get servants or wear better quality. Nationals are allowed to practice only one of the four types of work.
To grow corn, rice or millet (but vegetables and fruit were permitted only as an addition to the main landing).
Being a civil servant (official, employee engaged in public construction projects, an accountant, and so on. D.).
Weave an inexpensive fabric.
Being a soldier, when called upon (military service was mandatory for almost all).
Also permitted to produce simple utensils or a little to trade, but only if the revenue from this activity does not become a major: artisans and merchants were considered “parasites” and be destroyed.
Parasites were also ranked musicians, writers, teachers, doctors and other intellectuals. All books, in addition to treatises on the Legalism, were burned.
Parents and adult children and other relatives are not encouraged to live together as a large family in which there were many hands contributed to the breeding of “parasites.” With these families took double taxes.
All families have joined in the “heel”, “tens” and “hundreds” of residence. For the crime of one family head piled all heels. If the area had a lot of abuse, the punishment could catch a dozen or even a hundred. However, if you alert the neighbors time to make a denunciation of the crime, they were not punished. *
The man could climb the ladder of ranks, denouncing neighbors and colleagues. The unjust denunciations power was not afraid because it was said that it is better to execute ten innocents than to leave without punishment of the guilty. Also, one rank up soldier for every five severed heads of the enemy in battle.
Alcohol was banned. All known drinkers and wine merchants in one memorable day was arrested, dragged to the area and telling cooked in large pots with wine.
The life of the citizens turned into a web of restrictions and regulations. Regulate all: the number of dishes that can be served to the family table, color dresses, hairstyles shape, thickness and height of the mats benches form trees in the yard, the frequency of ventilation of premises and the number of bows, which must make before planting. All agricultural work was carried out under the supervision of officials who managed the terms and types of plantings, bought most of the grown grain at a fixed rate and impose ridiculous heels, tens and hundreds of punishment if the yield is not satisfactory.
The main type of punishment served the death penalty. However, in the intricate variations, including, for example, “tearing human four wagons”, “zasekanie to death with sticks light and medium”, “pulling the intestines, followed by these guts hanging” and so on. D. For serious crimes such as large theft, blasphemy on sovereign or murder were executed not only the perpetrator and his heels, but all their relatives in three generations of the offender “up and down”, that is, from his grandfather to his grandchildren. However, only paternal, but together with their children and wives.
During questioning the correctness and appropriateness of laws also believes the death penalty.
Coward should be punished because they hate the most – death. Then the cowardly men, spurred on penalties, will turn into a brave and courageous people will fight to the death, the country will have no equal and is sure to achieve domination in the Middle Kingdom.
The Kingdom of Qin, faithful to the principles of Legalism, soon to enter the war with almost all its neighbors (albeit at a time). They fought bravely tsintsy: they had nowhere to go. For cowardice in battle relied those same four razryvatelnye carts. All the soldiers, too, were divided into five, and when one of the five died, his head shot with the other four. For the death of the commander of the hundreds killed hundreds. For the surrender of exterminating all the relatives deserter. Considering that the civil penalty so diligently that the successful weeks of their kill more than combatants, Qin began soon have some problems with human resources, which have been brilliantly solved. For the rest of the kingdoms he was sent to the cry: “The Qin give ground! Everyone! Free! Come and plow any unoccupied vacant lot, it will be yours. In ten years – a tax exemption for three generations – from military service! ”
And at the edge of the fertile Qin drew crowds of immigrants, especially from lean, hungry land, which by that time had not yet spread information about the nuances of Ch’in life. The newcomers settled on vacant lots and lands executed, providing food support to the Qin army, and if the governor had fresh meat to the front, then, thank the gods, benefits and guarantees could deny anyone the benefit of the will of the ruler is above any law and any promises.
Just as honest and honorable was Xiao-gong and foreign policy. Had sent assassins to nearby Prince, throw the letter talented vilify the enemy warlord killed nobly ambassador after the vows of guaranteed safety for him to break the “eternal borders” two weeks after the peace agreement – it was all in order. In the end, the other five kingdoms of China recognized brand Qin inability of a partner. However, all five kingdoms then fought each other not less active than the Qin, and when I finally realized that the cost would be to unite, it was too late. The Kingdom of Qin, transformed into a fighting machine, works hard, and to win, have devoured them one by one.
Legistskih State took a little more than a century to subjugate the whole of China. But long before the actual founder of his philosopher Shang Yang was executed with all his ancestors and descendants to the third generation, because after the death of Xiao-gong came to power, the same prince, teachers, and relatives that Shang Yang decorated the marks and scars still Early in his career. Legalism as an excellent gosustroystvo Prince decided to leave, but of Shang Yang – no. New potter, spat on his hands, took the clay …
Nobody should express their opinion and to express it to his ruler, nor those who have extensive knowledge, eloquence, sharpness of mind, nor those who are honest and selfless. Strong need to break, eloquent – get to bite my tongue.
But this is only formal. In fact, the elements of Legalism was attended by almost all times in all parts of Asia and China. From century to century with these pillars of the eastern state shakes off the dust, and their basic principles began to be perceived as something natural and irrefutable.
The man – nothing, the state – everything.
Strong man – the cause of a weak state.
The law is more important than justice, is more important than good and important reason.
Whoever top, always right.
And these principles are probably guilty of that most ancient, great and powerful world civilization gradually lost the ability to develop, abandoned the role of leader of world progress, instead of choosing a big role for small states, very little people. Rice, sparrows and Chairman Mao – a faint shadow of an evil smile thrown through the centuries. However, China is now probably the first time beginning to turn away from the ideology of their ancient ethical system. Slowly, as it always is going on here, but purposefully. Human rights, the inviolability of property, the importance of identity – all these concepts have gained not only the hieroglyphic designation, but also a place in the consciousness of the nation. Hundreds of millions killed in wars and upheavals XIX-XX centuries as payment for civilizational backwardness, long a feeling of humiliation and inferiority – this is a very hard lesson for the nation. And, it seems, more than study the subject she does not want.