Carl the Great
The art and literature and the foundations of the war the money
After his death in 768 year Frankish king Pepin the Short had two sons, Charles and Carloman, divided among themselves the country. In 771 year Carloman died, and Carl with universal consent was proclaimed a single king of the Franks. By this time their power is already included extensive holdings. Carl tried to enlarge them. First of all he started the war with its Eastern neighbours – Saxons.
As subsequent events showed, the Saxon war was destined to become the longest and most bitter of all the wars of his reign. Intermittently stopping and appeared again, it lasted thirty-three years and cost the Franks big losses. Besides, they were all pagans and stubbornly resisted Christianization. In the year 772 Carl for the first time invaded Saxony.
In 773 year Carl started against Desiderius war. A strong army of the Franks approached the Alps. Lombards closed and fortified the passes, but the brave squad went through the secret paths in the enemy’s rear. Fearing encirclement, Desiderius left the mountains and retreated to his capital, Pavia.
The single battle pursued the enemy on the way mastered numerous cities of Lombardy. Carl rest of the army came in February 774 year to Verona. After a short siege, the city surrendered. In April, the Franks came to Rome. Pope Adrian I gave them to the king heartily. Carl treated him with reverence, before coming to hand Adrian, he kissed all the stairs of the temple of St. Peter.
In early June, under siege, Desiderius came from Pavia and obeyed.. Defeated foe, he made vows. The following years were given to the Saxon war. In 775 year at the head of a large army Carl deepened in Saxony until the Oker River and left strong garrisons in Ehrenburg and Shibula. But the next spring, the Saxons took Ehrenburg back.
Charles I did as a Christian and saved the life of Desiderius – the last king of the Lombard Kingdom.
Then Carl tried to create on the border with Saxony fortified frontier. In 776 BC he established a fortress here Karlsburg and baptized many of the Saxons. In 777 year from all over the country to him was a mass of local residents and expressed his submission.
In 778 Karl was distracted by war with the Spanish Arabs at the head of a large army made a trip over the Pyrenees, but failed under Zaragoza. On his return from Spain Karl learned that the Saxons, uniting around a brave leader Widukind and went at him with war.
In 779, Charles invaded Saxony and took almost the entire country, anywhere without encountering resistance. Again, as before, into his camp was a lot of Saxons, who gave hostages and the pledge of allegiance.
It seemed that Saxony finally incorporated into the Frankish Empire, but it was a false impression. After a few months from Denmark returned Widukind and revolted.
Many francs were killed, churches destroyed. The army sent against the Saxons, was ambushed.
Then was released «FIRST CAPITULARE SAXONICUM» that threatened terrible punishment for any transgression against the Church and the power of the Franks. Following three years Carl didn’t leave Saxony. In the course of this hard war, he beat the Saxons in open battles and punitive raids, took hundreds of hostages who were escorted out of the country, destroyed villages and farms rebellious.
Then began the difficult Avar War. According to the records of contemporary Karl Einhard, she was the most bitter after Saxon and demanded francs very large costs. Summer 791, the army of Charles in three different ways invaded the country of the Avars and reached Vienna woods, where were their main fortifications.
Saxony today, unlike its predecessor, does not want to fight.
Carl with his sons Charles and Louis fought in Saxony. In late summer – early autumn, 797, he started a Grand campaign by land and water. During the expedition, Charles Russell in Saxony francs, and many Saxons took a in Franconia. Spring 798, he was subjected to the complete devastation of the land between the Weser and the Elbe.
Exhausted by years of war Saxony bowed down to the winner. The conquest of this vast country and its inclusion in the composition of the Frankish state was an important event of the early medieval history of Europe. As a result of all these wars the Kingdom of the Franks has increased almost twice in comparison with what it was when Pepin. Beyond it stretched from the Duchy of Schleswig in the North to Calabria in the South. From the Atlantic ocean in the West to the Vienna woods to the East.
For the first time since the ancient Roman Empire the whole of Western Europe was United under the rule of one sovereign. The Royal title was no longer able to meet the Creator and owner of this great Empire.
In the autumn of 800 Karl went to Rome and December 25, took the Imperial title. At that time he was 58 years old. Being at the Zenith of fame, Carl was in the Prime of life and health. Simple in dealing with people, he would not tolerate the pomp and ceremonies in the home. As the historian Einhard, Carl was very simple and moderate in his habits. On ordinary days, the outfit he was little different from the clothes of a commoner.
Wine he drank little and hated drunkenness. Lunch Emperor in everyday life consisted only of four courses, not counting hot that hunters were applied directly on skewers and which Charles preferred to every other morsel. During the meal he listened to music or reading. It was occupied by the deeds of the ancients, as well as the writings of St. Augustine’s “De Civitate Dei contra Paganos”.
Under the crown of Charles I gathered all of Western Europe.
After lunch in the summer time he ate a few apples and drank another Cup. The monarch was eloquent and easily Express their thoughts. He was jealous of every speaker . Not limited to Patriotic speech, Carl studied foreign languages and mastered Latin, so that he could speak it as their native language. In Greek it is more understood than spoken. In childhood, Karl has not received a proper education, but he compensated for this lack of natural intelligence and a remarkable work ethic.
Diligently studying various Sciences, he was highly esteemed scientists, show them great respect. As an adult, he studied grammar, rhetoric, dialectics and astronomy, thanks to what could skillfully to calculate the festivals of the Church and to observe the movement of the stars. He tried also to write and to this end, kept under the pillow tablets for writing, so in my spare time to teach hand print letters.
A lot of respect felt by the Emperor to the Church and scientists.
The monarch, the Church is deeply revered and Holy observed all the rites. He was the Emperor is very active and has distinguished himself not only as a great military leader, but also as a tireless Builder. On his initiative, build roads, broke channels, bridges were built, grew dozens of palaces and temples.
The last years of his life Charles had refrained from wars and thought more about the defense of its vast holdings. He has done a lot to protect the Northern lands of the Empire .
Shortly before his death, but in the year 813, Karl called his only surviving son, Louis, who had the title of Kong of Aquitaine and appointed him, with the General consent of the Assembly of the Franks – his co-Emperor and heir, and after that he wore on his head the Imperial crown.
After the coronation of the son of Carl gets sick a strong fever .THE end of January 814 year to the fever joined pleurisy and on the seventh day the Emperor dies.
The world holds all things in his arms