July 21. Day in the history
July 21 – National day of Belgium, is also known under the name the National Belgian festival — one of 12 national holidays of Belgium who is marked out annually on July 21 since 1890.
In the night of July 21 356 BC. The fame-thirsty person burned Artemis’s Temple in Efesa – one of seven miracles of a classical antiquity on the coast of Asia Minor. According to a legend, at night when in Pele, the capital of Macedonia,
Ruins of the temple of Artemis
future Alexander the Great was born, a certain vain citizen Efesa by the name of the Fame-thirsty person set fire to the great temple, wishing to become famous thus. The name of the Fame-thirsty person became nominal since then and became history though according to the solution of city meeting had to disappear from memory of people forever. In official documents about it is mute it is told simply as about “one madman”.
On July 21, 1542 the Pope Pavel III founded the Roman inquisition for fight against Protestantism. Since the end of the XV century when in Europe ideas of mass presence of the witches who signed the contract with evil spirit among the usual population start extending, processes about witches start entering its competence. By the end of the XVI century the Roman inquisitors started dropping a serious hint of doubt in most cases of charge of witchcraft. Lawyers of Catholic church attached huge significance to frank recognition. Except usual interrogations, it was applied, as well as in secular courts of that time, torture of the suspect. In case the suspect didn’t die during the investigation, and admitted deeds and repented, case papers were brought to trial. Inquisition didn’t allow extrajudicial punishments.
Memorial board on a place of signing of the contract in 1774, the village Kaynardzha, Bulgaria
On July 21, 1774 Russia and the Ottoman Empire signed the Kyuchuk-Kaynardzhiysky peace treaty which finished the Russian-Turkish war 1768 — 1774 “in camp at the village of Kyuchuk-Kaynardzhi” (nowadays Bulgaria). In the contract territorial gains of Russia within the previous Belgrad peace treaty of 1739 were confirmed (the city of Azov and fortress Kinburn), independence of the Crimean khanate and non-interference to its affairs as Russia, and Turkey, and also transition to possession of the Russian Empire of the city of Kerch and nearby fortress of Eni-Calais is recognized for ever.
On July 21, 1822 — day of creation of the First Mexican empire. The Spanish Catholic priest Miguel Hidalgo in Dolores’s town declared on September 16, 1810 independence of Mexico. It laid the foundation to long war. In 1821 the Declaration on independence of Mexico was also signed. And Miguel Hidalgo was seized by enemies and executed. I existed from July 21, 1821 to March 19, 1823. I included the territory the former Nova of Spain and Guatemalan general captaincy. There was the Second Mexican empire later.