July 31. Day in the history
On July 31, 1790 the first patent of the USA is granted. Patents in modern understanding of this word appeared in 1474 in the Venetian Republic. This year the decree according to which it was necessary to report about the inventions realized in practice to the republican authorities, for the purpose of prevention of use of inventions by other persons was issued. Period of validity of the patent made 10 years. In 1624 in England “The statute about monopolies” according to which patents were granted on “drafts of new inventions” is issued. The first patent law of the USA (Patent Act) is issued in 1790. In Russia in 1812 there is the first general “The law on privileges”, and in 1830 of March 30 the basic concepts of patent law are established by the law.
On July 31, 1802 Dmitry Sergeyevich Ilyin, the officer of the Russian navy, the captain of the 1st rank (1777), the hero of Chesmensky sea battle died. 1770 ordering a brander,
He set fire to the Turkish linear ship. In result of the begun fire the Turkish fleet which was in the Chesmensky bay was destroyed. For this feat D. S. Ilyin is awarded the order to the Saint Great martyr and Pobedonosts Georgy IV of a class.
On July 31, 1857 Alexander Vasilyevich Krivoshein, the Russian statesman, the next employee Petra Stolypina on implementation of an agrarian reform was born. Krivoshein was Glavnoupravlyayushchy land management and agriculture (1908 — 1915). Also Alexander Vasilyevich – the Prime Minister of the South of Russia (1920). Steward of the household, valid privy councilor. The member of the Russian meeting (He was the first part of its Council).
On July 31, 1907 in Cuba duels were forbidden. It is considered that duel in Moscow between foreign military mercenaries by Gordon and Montgomery in 1666 was the first duel in Russia. After that the number of duels began to grow quickly, but the authorities treated them very disapprovingly. Peter I, despite the addiction to the European orders and customs, at once entered fight against duels. Laws provided a cruel penalty even for a call on duel, and according to “The short article” of 1706 for the duel which didn’t have tragic consequences the death penalty for both duelists and their seconds was provided. Duels between women were in Russia a rarity though too happened. In France, especially in the 17th century, at the time of the cardinal Richelieu, ladies quite often crossed swords. At Ludovic 14 shining fencer opera singer Mopen on a ball pinned up some men. The Frenchwoman madam Shasheru in 1872, having learned that the husband didn’t demand a satisfaction, itself challenged to a duel the offender and seriously wounded him in a duel on swords. Ladies and firearms didn’t disdain.