Russian literature: Dashkova Ekaterina Romanova
Princess Dashkova Ekaterina Romanova (17 (28) March 1743, 4 (16) January 1810, Moscow), nee Vorontsov. Friend and associate of the future Empress Catherine II, a participant of a coup in 1762.
After accession to the throne, Catherine II has cooled to a friend and Princess Dashkova did not play a significant role in the affairs of government. One of the most notable figures of the Russian Enlightenment, was at the forefront of the Russian Academy.
In 1762 Dashkova took part in the coup against Peter III, in spite of the fact that her sister Elizabeth was a favorite of the king, and could become his new wife. As Grigory Orlov, Dashkova became a major ally of Catherine I to overthrow her royal spouse. Orlov led advocacy in the army, and Dashkova – among the dignitaries and the aristocracy. Thanks to her, were attracted to the side of the Empress Count Nikita Panin and Count Kirill Razumovsky, as well as other influential personalities of the era.
After the reign of Catherine the cordial relations girlfriends several cold. Dashkovoj often disliked favorite of the Empress, and the gifts and attention that they provide. Rectilinear manner princess, her undisguised contempt for the palace favorites and a sense of underestimating their own merits created a rift between her and Catherine, because of what Dashkova have asked permission to go abroad. According to some sources, the real reason was the failure of the county Dashkovoj Empress assign it a colonel of the Imperial Guard.
Ekaterina Romanova became the first woman in the world, who ran the Academy of Sciences.
Ekaterina Romanova has undertaken an extensive tour of Europe and everywhere was accepted with great respect because of its scientific and literary reputation. It has got a strong friendship with Diderot and Voltaire, met with Adam Smith. A lot of attention after the death of her husband, Prince Michael Dashkova known aristocrat, leading its roots from Rurik, on education only son, who was sent to study in the University of Edinburgh.
In 1782 Dashkova returned to the Russian capital and its relationship with Catherine again improved. Empress liked Dashkovoj literary taste, but mostly she was impressed by the desire to build Ekaterina Romanova Russian language to the rank of the great literary languages of Europe.
Immediately after the return of the princess she was appointed chairwoman of the St. Petersburg Academy of Arts and Sciences, and in 1784 became the first director of the Russian Academy of Sciences, based on her own request. Ekaterina Romanova Vorontsov-Dashkova became the first woman in the world, who ran the Academy of Sciences. She also initiated the publication of the first Dictionary of Russian language in six volumes.
In 1796, immediately after his accession to the throne, Emperor Paul I Dashkova removed from all their posts and ordered her to live in the Novgorod her estate. Only through the intervention of the Empress Maria Feodorovna princess was allowed to settle in the Kaluga province, and later in Moscow.