Russian science: Dmitri Mendeleev
Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev (27 January [8 February] 1834, Tobolsk – January 20 [February 2] in 1907, St. Petersburg) – the great Russian scholar and lexicographer: chemist, chemist, physicist, metrology, economist, engineer, geologist, meteorologist, balloonist , instrument. Professor of St. Petersburg State University; Corresponding Member of the St. Petersburg Imperial Academy of Sciences.
The great scientist became famous during his lifetime. The most famous discoveries – the periodic law of chemical elements, one of the fundamental laws of the universe. The author of the classic work “Fundamentals of Chemistry”.
Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev was born on January 27 (February 8), 1834 in Tobolsk in the family of Ivan Pavlovich Mendeleev (1783-1847), while he served as Director of the Tobolsk Tobolsk grammar schools and districts. Dmitri was the last in the family, the seventeenth child. Eight of the seventeen children died in infancy more (three of them parents did not even give names), and one of his daughters, Mary, died at age 14 in the mid-1820s in Saratov of consumption.
History has preserved document the birth of Dmitry Mendeleev – metric book Spiritual Consistory of 1834, where the yellowed pages of births in the graph of Tobolsk Church of the Epiphany reads:
“January 27 Tobolsk gymnasium Director – court counselor Ivan Pavlovich Mendeleev on the lawfulness of his wife Maria’s son Dmitry was born.”
Dmitry Ivanovich was married twice. In 1862 married with Theosebia Nikitichna Leshcheva, a native of Tobolsk (stepdaughter of the famous author of “The Little Humpbacked Horse” by Pyotr Pavlovich Yershov). Wife was his senior by six years. In this marriage were born three children: daughter, Maria (1863) – she died in infancy, the son of Vladimir (1865-1898) and daughter Olga (1868-1950). At the end of 1878 43-year-old Dmitri Mendeleev passionately in love with 18-year-old Anna Ivanovna Popov (1860-1942), the daughter of the Don Cossacks from Uryupinsk. In the second marriage Mendeleev had four children: Love, Ivan and the twins Maria and Vasily. In the early 21st century. of the descendants of Alexander Mendeleev was alive, the grandson of his daughter Mary.
Periodic law of chemical elements
Having finished on February 17 (March 1) in 1869 to work on “experience of the elements, based on their atomic weight and chemical similarity” Dmitri Mendeleev discovered one of the fundamental laws of nature – the periodic law of chemical elements.
6 March (18 March), the famous 1869 report Mendeleev “Value of properties with an atomic weight of elements” was read by at a meeting of the Russian Chemical Society and will soon be published in the “Journal of the Russian Chemical Society”. In the same year, this message appeared in German in the journal «Zeitschrift fur Chemie», and in 1871 in the journal «Annalen der Chemie» was carried Unfolded publication Mendeleev devoted to his discovery – «Die periodische Gesetzmassigkeit der Elemente» (periodic pattern of chemical elements).
Developing in the years 1869-1871 the idea of periodicity, Mendeleev introduced the concept of the place element in the periodic table, as the totality of its properties in comparison with those of other elements. On this basis, in particular, based on the results of studies of sequence variations stekloobrazuyuschihoksidov, corrected the atomic masses of 9 elements (beryllium, indium, uranium, etc.).
In an article dated November 29 (December 11) in 1870 predicted the existence, calculated atomic masses and described the properties of three is not open then elements – “eka-aluminum” (opened in 1875 and named gallium), “eka-boron” (opened in 1879 and named scandium) and “ekasilitsiya” (opened in 1885 and was named Germany). More then predicted the existence of eight elements, including “dvitellura” – polonium (opened in 1898), “ekaioda” – astatine (opened in 1942-1943), “ekamargantsa” – technetium (opened in 1937), “dvimargantsa”– rhenium (opened in 1925),”ekatseziya”– francium (opened in 1939).