European monarchy: Christine of Hesse
Christine of Hesse (29 June 1543 – 13 May 1604) was Duchess consort of Holstein-Gottorp as the spouse of Duke Adolf of Holstein-Gottorp. She exerted some political influence as a widow after 1586.
Christine was born in Kassel as a daughter of Landgrave Philip I of Hesse and his spouse Christine of Saxony. She was given a strict Protestant upringing by her aunt Elizabeth, Dowager Duchess of Saxony. As Duchess, Christine supported churches and schools and scholarships to poor students in theology. She was interested in medicine, and also manufactured her own medicines.
As a widow after 1586, she defended the rights of her son Philip against the council. Christine composed the psalm-book Geistliche Psalmen und Lieder (1590).