Bureau of Russian emigrants in Manchuria (BREM) was established in 1935 as a self-governing body for the management of public affairs, both individual immigrants and various emigrant organizations protect their legal, economic and cultural interests, maintaining statistical records.
Registration subject to all immigrants, for this personally filled out a questionnaire of 73 – 87 points. In 1935 were registered 23,500 people. The structure was originally a simple BREM (Head of Department and 4), but complicated and by 1945 became: Head, emigrant Council, the arbitral tribunal and 7 departments and the Office of the subdivision. BREM initially funded with funds being sought by the Bureau – contributions from each registered (1% of earnings or content), a certain proportion of publishing, business activities, operation of real estate, the device charity events.
Gradually, however, the main source of funding was the Japanese military mission – is being heralded as an act of charity, not advertised, but it was clear that such financial investments directed to specific goals. Was felt stronger intervention and frank pressure the Japanese military mission. The Japanese began to require BREM anti-work, observe the life of every human being, especially for Soviet citizens and members of the Soviet Consulate.
In schools was introduced military training, to create different types of units, unions. Japanese mission called Russian youths to serve in security, police, raiding and reconnaissance detachments. And go. Who do firmly believe, and someone just because in order to survive. Soldiers and their families are provided with financial and product support. Heads of departments and subdivisions BREM appointed people who have proved their hostility to communism or become a victim of the communist regime. BREM with its rigid structure and power was needed as an ally of Japan to implement colonial policy in East Asia and for the possibility of establishing military formations in case of war with the Soviet Union.
Relation to Bram population was different. And at the headquarters of the Bureau were people of different political views and business skills – some fiercely hated communist ideas, others, serving Japanese, made his career, and the main part of getting “just work” – a means of livelihood. However, 10 years of BREM engaged in concrete work, and the significance of his life Manchurian Russians was certainly significant.
For example, the head of the most crucial cultural-educational department KV Rodzaevsky – one of the leaders of the RFP, fanatic fascist ideas, the faithful servant of the Japanese, scandalously famous “dark party mafia affairs” (shot in 1946), on the other hand – his department offers playgrounds, summer camps for poor families, opens libraries in the most remote locations, where the Russian population, contributes to the opening of the opera house in the city of Harbin in 1941. Under the leadership of the Russian emigration BREM lives under Russian law and annually celebrates Russian national and religious holidays, systematically conducted sports games, sports and athletics.
The main result of cultural and educational work in the fact that the younger generation of immigrants who do not speak Russian, Russian increased. High spirituality brought up as in families and in the social and cultural life, based on the ideals and traditions of Russian history. Or the chief of the “terrible” secret third registration and Statistics Division MA Matkovskiy – one of the leaders of the RFP, the son of a tsarist general, finished KPI (in 1946 imprisoned in labor camp, served 12 years) – not only his department to carry out registration, registration, issuance of personal books, was in charge of finding a job, but also contained a network of informants that were in all institutions, followed trustworthy citizens, revealing crimes and abuse of emigrants from officials and the Japanese, studied political mood.
But here we encounter a seemingly inexplicably with facts. The events of August – September 1945. showed that “the machine Bram worked successfully Soviet agents” (Archive and investigative file on Matkowski №101505 KGB at SMSSSR). And from the testimony at the trial group of 26 third of BREM (Archive and investigative file №0135 in Omsk KGB №168 (2486)) can learn fascinating facts. It turns Head of Matkovskiy “repeatedly secretly contacted the Soviet consulate.”
“He explained to the employees of that goal BREM is not in the service of Japan, and in the leadership of emigration, help her survive the Japanese occupation, at the right time to return home and make all the energy and work for the benefit of great Russia.” “When the war started, they pretended to give information to the Japanese, and virtually all intelligence work by this time has stopped.” “Matkovskiy people close to him said that the already established a secret organization, which should contribute to the Soviet Union.”
“Before the arrival of Japanese troops suggested to delete the file, but Matkovskiy not allow.” In the early thirties immigrants living in the Occupied by the Japanese “right of way”, experienced great difficulties. In 25% of the population had no work. And these departments Bureau as colonization, financial, procurement, charity work harder. Solve the problem of unemployment by creating cooperative labor, sought the subcontracted created peasant, gardening, beekeeping, fishing and other facilities. By 1942. unemployment is virtually non-existent.
The efforts of the Bureau was established fund assistance to the unemployed, mutual benefit fund, security service of minors, a private clinic, a hospital for the chronically ill. The scope of concern included even burying those without relatives. Meaning BREM was particularly noticeable during the war, when we started shortages of food and medicines.
All large and small, vital issues were resolved in the BREM. By creating this organization, the Japanese government pursued its goals, and management failed to BREM so put the work that not only united the Russian colony, keep people alive, but also became a defender, guardian of economic, legal, cultural and spiritual values of the Russian people.
We continue to acquaint you with my family Matkowski. Members of the White movement, partly executed and partly left in Harbin, they later returned to the Soviet Union, settled in Tomsk, there met the publisher of texts. Aware of the importance of such memories for national unity, “Monarchist” asked Alexei Igorevich the Matkovskiy, who was born and lived the first years in Harbin, with a request to tell about their ancestors, about the Russian Manchuria. Again “first hand” you will get a small text with a brief author’s note.
That’s what accompanied offer photograph and biography Alexey Igorevich: “matkovskiy Alexey ‘ – shot, and then second Lieutenant. At home in Harbin hung on the wall of his picture in a frame. In full uniform, in Apollo, with aglets. Of course, parents at that time were afraid to carry it in a way across the border. Cut. Now all that was left of it”.
So, Alexey Filippovich Matkovskiy
Born 17.03.1877, in Ukraine, in Elizavetgrad Kherson province, in a poor family, nationality Russian. Regular military. He graduated from the First Cadet corps, Mikhailovskaya artillery school (1897), the General staff Academy (1903), Cavalry Officer school (1904).
Second Lieutenant connectionism battery (1897). Lieutenant (1900). Captain (1903). Assistant adjutant combatant branch of the Headquarters of the St. Petersburg military district (1904). Captain (1905). The commander of a squadron of the life guards Cavalry regiment. Lieutenant Colonel (1908). Senior adjutant combatant branch of the headquarters of the St. Petersburg military district (1909). Assistant clerk of the Main Directorate of the General staff.
He defended his thesis at the Academy of the General staff and was appointed extraordinary Professor at the Department of military art (1910). Colonel (1912). Ordinary (regular) Professor – head. Department of military art Academy of the General staff (1913).
The participant of the First World war – chief of staff of the Consolidated cavalry corps (1914), the commander of the 12th Belgorod Lancer regiment (1914-15,), chief of staff of the 1st Guards cavalry division (1915). Awarded the George weapons (1916). The commander of the 2nd Courland life-Ulan name of the Emperor Alexander II regiment (1916/). The chief of staff of the 11th cavalry division (1917).
Major General (1917). The chief of staff of the 5th cavalry corps (1917). Returned to the General staff Academy and was appointed ordinary Professor (1917). In the spring of 1918, in view of the approaching German army to St. Petersburg, together with the Academy of the General staff was evacuated in Yekaterinburg. In August 1918, the provisional Siberian government was appointed Manager of the Ministry of war, leaving in the position of tenured Professor of the Academy of the General staff.
In September 1918 he commanded the 2nd Siberian Steppe housing, located in Omsk, in November 1918, the acting commander of the Siberian army, in December 1918, the commander of the Omsk military district and Omsk garrison. Lieutenant General (iung year).
During the evacuation of the military district in September 1919 he arrived in Tomsk. The order to disband the Omsk military district sent at the disposal of the Supreme Commander of Admiral Kolchak. In November 1919. recalled to the station Taiga Kolchak, was appointed General-inspector of cavalry and sent to Krasnoyarsk for “tidying light cavalry”. In late November – early December, 1919, the highest military authority in the Altai province and in Barnaul. Arrested near Irkutsk station Baikal 05.01.1920, under the name Antonov.
Taken in Omsk, where shot 08.07.1920 year, at the age of 43, according to the verdict of the district court for counterrevolutionary activities. Had a number of scientific papers. In addition to numerous articles in military periodicals, he owns two major studies: “the Intelligence activities of the cavalry” (1910) and “Independent action by large forces of cavalry on the wings and in the rear of the hostile army” (1911). He was married, had three sons. Rehabilitated June 12, 1995, the Prosecutor’s office of the Omsk region on the basis of the Law of the Russian Federation.
“…Somewhere in the early 20-ies, Harbin Anna particular reference to (a close friend of Admiral A. C. Kolchak) told me that she was present at the interrogation of the citizen of the Antonov. The investigator made a rough of speech and expression. Gr. Antonov lost his temper and said, “I don’t Antonov I – General matkovskiy. Take the trouble to conduct the investigation properly”. The investigator said, “And we’re looking for You”. After that, A. F. matkovskiy was immediately placed in a separate chamber and transferred to Omsk…”
“…In the family Matkowski there is a legend according to which it is believed that Alexey ‘ has decided to not move to the East and to the West. Why? During the 1st world war in one of the regiments of the division in which he served A. F. matkovskiy, a simple soldier served S. M. Budyonny. Once S. M. Budyonny interceded for the soldier who struck the officer: he struck the officer in response. The laws of war-time it was supposed punishment. However, A. F. matkovskiy invited the commander to replace capital punishment by deprivation S. M. Budyonny soldier of the St George cross IV degree than saved the life of the future “red cavalry” the commander agreed. This is proved in the book by S. M. Budyonny “the path”: Marshal describes this episode, however, without mentioning names their Savior. Like it or not – now install the hard… Is what he hoped…”
“I. A. MATKOVSKIY. Scouting in persons”. K. C. Isayenko. Historical almanac of scouting. Omsk. 1995
We continue to acquaint you with memoirs-compilations of tomic and Karbinci Alexei Igorevich of matkovskiy about his family, about Chinese emigration. I must say that Alexey Igorevich – not the only one whose personal memories has allowed us to feel a warm feeling to Manchuria. The first in our Harbin list was Elena T. amilakhvari, Princess, living in Venezuela, anywhere, even not being a Princess, just from China.
In Caracas was the Prince amilakhvari, the pupil of the Russian cadet corps in the Balkans, the worthy son of a worthy father. It is clear that the Prince in the USSR without weapons was nothing to do. But the father of Helena Tikhonovna, engineer CEL, could count on a condescending attitude councils to himself – he never was a professional soldier. However, he served as Kolchak and wisely decided to avoid returning to Soviet Russia where they had been sent, as you know from the published below, many Russian families. And where were affected almost everyone.
So, already shot Alex Filippovich matkovskiy, but still not sitting in a Soviet prison, his son, Igor Alekseevich matkovskiy.
The essay continues the grandson of General…
In 1879 The great Siberian railway came to Baikal, and Sergei Yulyevich Witte liked the idea to lay cheats after the road to Vladivostok via China. An agreement was signed between Russia and China, for which we received around the railway line exclusion zone. To implement this article of the Treaty established the society of the Chinese Eastern railway. It was determined that the city will become the main administrative center of the line will be controlled by the Russians, there will be a police and he will live by the same laws as other cities of Russia. It was founded in 1898 and named it Harbin.
It was built by Russian architects, absorbed all the architectural styles of the time. And it’s not only on the main streets of the city, but on all others. The city consisted of seven districts. The Songhua river was the “dock” with the river port and commercial centre, where the best shops, banks, theaters and cafes. There are three parallel streets leading to the waterfront, cross, as in Petersburg, street line. “New town” was built on a hill to the South of “the Pier”. He had a stern look, and its tree-lined wide streets such as Grand Avenue, Novatorov and the prospect of Songhua there was a beautiful residence, foreign consulates and club CEL.
Alleys parks was drawn to the picturesque squares, one of which stood the Orthodox Cathedral, on the other – the Central train station with a huge icon on the wall. Five other districts of Harbin were less colorful. It is remarkable how little in comparison with Harbin, have a good pre-revolutionary buildings Khabarovsk, Blagoveshchensk, Vladivostok. Clear: the main part of the Russian funds in the beginning of the century in these stone facades of multi-storey buildings. Local streets on the quality of buildings was not inferior then both capitals. In Harbin was then the center of our Asian policy.
The Russians had built a highway from cheats through Northern China to Vladivostok for almost three years. With excellent rail and river transportation, Harbin after 1900 flourished as a transshipment center of trade in grain, cotton and soybeans. Already in 1916, lived here 40 thousand Russians. The consequences of the October revolution flooded the Harbin refugees from Siberia. In 1922, the Russians in Harbin was 120 thousand.
Two centres had Russian emigration in Europe – Paris, Asia – Harbin. If the Russian nobility were quickly assimilated into French society, on the other side of the world for several decades remained pre-revolutionary Russia. On the streets of Paris Russians spoke in a foreign language, on the streets of Harbin on its own. Prior to the occupation of Manchuria by Japan in 1931 Harbin lived according to Russian laws. In Harbin at that time the Russians were the majority.
The Chinese tradition in this city there were cooks, servants, traders, rickshaw. Here was a society in the provincial town of Russia, as if the victory was not for the red and white. Harbin was similar to any Volzhsky provincial town. Embankments and paddlewheel steamers, it seemed, had been transferred there from Saratov. On the cobblestones scurried cabs. In the winter they would harness the horses to the sleigh. On the frozen Songhua river raced sleds on human powered using Bagrov, with the rider in a warm coat and hat (“push-pull”). Signs in Russian, which could be seen everywhere, screaming about the survivability of private initiative, almost strangled in the Soviet Union. Russian children in the wastelands played rounders and towns.
I wanted comfort and peaceful life. The kids walked with nannies – many Russian families fled from the servants. The children went to real school and school boys and girls in school. Dreamed of entering the Polytechnic, legal, medical, educational or commercial Institute. He studied at the Conservatory. Visited the Opera house, was very popular operetta theatre.
In Harbin, being in exile, were Chaliapin and Vertinsky. Worked Symphony orchestra. Restaurant Unterberger offered fried pheasant and caviar, and vodka “Bliss” local production. In the cafe “Mars” served French pastries, and the restaurant “Alcazar” visitors lounged on the balcony, supported by Greek columns, enjoying the fountains and pop performance on a rotating stage. Gypsy melodies that sounded cabaret “Fantasy”, resonated with an underlying melancholy of immigrants who lived in the sale of the removed property and afraid to think about the future.
On the Travel day and night worked Russian prostitutes. Published several papers. Among them, “dawn”, “Harbin true”, “Horn”, “New life”. Was published in the magazine “Foreign” and the children’s magazine “Swallow”.20 Orthodox churches, 2 of the synagogue, and the mosque was attended by parishioners. Harbin was founded immediately with electricity, sewers, high-rise buildings. The tram and then a bus connected areas of the city. Marina “Harbin” processed million tons of cargo and freight station – twice. There were well-equipped depot repair plant, two shipyards.
The Russians had built several knitting factories and tanneries, 36 malodejatelny plants, 22 steam mills and 8 spiritosanto. In 1924 in Harbin was revealed to the Soviet Consulate, and part of the possessions of CEL was moved to Moscow. Many Russians, those who worked on the railroad, were Soviet citizens. But the arrival of the Japanese in 1931 changed and this way of life. Their power was occupying. Who had a Soviet passport, reached Home, who remained with Russian documents, moved to Shanghai, where he began to experience a new Russian colony.
In the thirties on the streets more often it sounds non-Russian speaking, more inscriptions in Chinese and Japanese languages. After the defeat in August 1945, the red Army million Kwantung group of Japanese people had the impression that the Soviet occupation of Manchuria will be long. However, in March 1946, the Soviet leadership decided the immediate withdrawal of occupation troops from Manchuria.
Far Eastern branch of Russian emigration responded ambiguously. Her position was influenced by a complex range of experiences, from August 1945 to April 1946, as well as alarming projections for the near future. Manchuria met the winners with glee. Of course, were among the emigrants of the family which under no circumstances did not want back in touch with the Bolsheviks (especially those with risk to life fled from the revolution from Russia and later from the repression of the USSR).
And yet, the majority of the Russian population of Manchuria was considered the victory of the Soviet troops as the long-awaited release from the terrible regime of the Japanese occupation, becoming every year more and more repressive. At the parade of Soviet troops in commemoration of the Victory of the USSR over Japan, held in Harbin in September 1945, a significant event happened. The delegation of the ” white ” emigrants officers asked permission to go to a demonstration in the Russian military officer’s uniform with all the regalia, that he had given consent. An eyewitness wrote: “Past the platform where we were, were decrepit old men, many of them leaning on crutches, were hung crosses of St. George and medals.
This crowd once brave officers of the Russian army slowly moved through the area, welcoming standing in the stands. Behind them were Russian civil people, in his time, left their Homeland and living his life in exile. Among them many young people. All this mixed crowd was organized in front of the stage.
A rare sight, exceptional… But to the feelings of joy and pride for the Motherland of the Russian emigrants mingled bitterness and disappointment. After army in Manchuria became a business unit of counter-intelligence SMERSH, not under military command. Continued solemn meetings, receptions, meetings, concerts, and SMERSH has already started mass arrests. Went hunting for active members of the White movement, and also persons, who are righteous or unrighteous were accused of collaborating with the Japanese. The majority of those arrested, even by Soviet standards, were completely innocent people.
The vast majority of “taken” years 10-12 were rehabilitated “because of the absence in their actions constitute a crime”. The decision on the withdrawal of Soviet troops, adopted in March 1946, sounded like “a bolt from the blue”. It was a surprise even to the army high command. The true reason for the sudden change of the situation became known later. It consisted of the following: concisely wanted their military units included in all the places where our troops are. They wanted to use us as a sort of shield, protecting them from the people’s liberation army of China, in other words, hoped to strengthen his power, relying on the power of the Soviet Army. In April 1946, without regret parting with units of SMERSH, Harbin with sadness upon leaving the city of Russian soldiers, not hiding the good feelings to the liberators from Japanese rule.
Took her by blood, by language, by belonging to the glorious Russian military traditions. A year after Stalin’s death in 1954, attendees were allowed to return Home. But only in areas of virgin and fallow lands.” People began to sign up, appeared all. The destination was declared only after crossing the border. It was the virgin state of the Altai and Kazakhstan. At the same time appeared recruiters in Canada, Israel, Brazil, Argentina, and Australia.
And for the last Russians left the city before the “cultural revolution”, having moved to Australia, where still preserve the memory of Harbin. The Harbin in 1998 was 100 years old. Today China is the leading producer of goods in the world. And Harbin has changed. He is now fully Chinese. If you look at the shape of streets, wore once names: Ground, Field, Officer, coachmen, Riding, Russian past them barely guess. So far only the main thoroughfare of the Russian area “Marina” street “Chinese” is the same as in the 30-ies, only the signs on the shops and hotels in the Chinese language. Already fully multi-storey buildings, banks and firms with floors tinted Windows and inscriptions in European languages.
But the most vivid examples of Russian architecture of the Chinese retain. Many buildings signs saying “Protected by the state”. On the days of fighting with Japan and our their part, the Chinese also don’t forget, preserving monuments to our soldiers. In Harbin several restaurants with Russian cuisine and our interiors. Still working shops Russian merchant Ivan Churina, only they now state. And call them on the Chinese style “Colin”…
So, comrade, we continue to publish research of tomic Alexei matkovskiy about his family, about the Russian Harbin. Living witnesses of the era left a little, and Alexey I., born in Harbin in 1936, can be called as a witness on the famous stretch of the imagination, but he has a personal interest in Russian history – his ancestors were active creators. Kolchak General Alexey Filippovich matkovskiy – grandfather, his son Igor Alekseevich – father. Therefore, these valuable stories. And, to the extent permitted by the criminal code of the Russian Federation, honest.
A. I. the matkovskiy no secret agreement of his father with red. We will not speculate, it is temporary for the “white” family or not, came out like it did.
Unfortunately, no details are described Harbin scout period I. A. matkovskiy, and we know that in the Russian Harbin was impossible to ignore Constantine Rodzaevskogo, and he who himself Konstantin Vladimirovich attention was allocated, was an employee of the last if not the WFTU, on other cases.
However, we all understand that is not about all one can say even now. By the way, the publisher worked with hero essay in the same University for three years. Even in one Department. So, let’s see how they returned to Tomsk scouting and who passed podsvetkoi youth.
Annunciation Cathedral in Harbin.
The Matkovskiy Igor Alekseevich
Born in 1912, in St. Petersburg in the family of a soldier nationality Russian. On the maternal side from the nobility. In 1918, together with his family moved in, Yekaterinburg, then, Omsk, and Tomsk (1919). When in the winter of 1920, during the civil war, father (Lieutenant General, member of the First World war, Professor at the Academy of the General staff, commander of the Omsk military district troops of Kolchak) was missing, he, at the age of 8 years, together with his family (mother and two older brothers) emigrated to China, in Harbin. Later it became known that his father was shot “red” in June 1920
He studied at the Commercial school of the Chinese Eastern Railway (1920 – 25, and in the school’s Christian Association Young Men (1926 – 30 years.). In the fall of 1930, he entered the Harbin Polytechnic Institute for road construction Department, but in 1931, due to the high tuition fees at the Polytechnic Institute, moved to 2nd course of physico-mathematical faculty of Harbin pedagogical Institute and graduated in 1935
Made a living and learning tutoring, working in the newspaper office of the Russian emigrants in the accounting Department of the plant. Consisted in the organization of Russian Scouts (1923 – 40). First, ordinary member, then the scoutmaster (1931), and in 1935 was appointed chief of the Manchu division of the organization. Worked with children and youth religious-Patriotic education, organized fees, trips, summer camps during the holidays.
Organized by the newspaper office immigrants “Page young friends”, where he tried to force their “young authors”. For active and skillful management of Affairs in scouting was awarded all 3 degrees of the order of the Mighty polar Bear. In February 1936, married Zinaida Alexandrovna Orlova, too, the scoutmaster, and in December 1936, a son Alexei, and in December 1940, the son of Nicholas. Worked at the International Society of Sleeping car first as head of the wagon-restaurant, by the controller, then head Novogodnim Agency (1936 – 42,) and Harbin Trade and Commerce by the clerk of the Russian Department (1943 – 44,).
In 1944, due to the beginning of shortages of food, he moved together with his family in the village of Novo-Pokrovka Tagansko district, where he is engaged in agriculture, combining rustic work with the duties of clerk of the village Board. After the liberation of Manchuria from the Japanese occupation by Soviet troops, in September 1945, was “temporarily detained” by the Soviet counterintelligence “to clarify some of the questions sent in Khabarovsk, 4.10.1945 was arrested UMHB in the Khabarovsk Region, sentenced 28.03.1946, Art. 58-4 of the criminal code of the RSFSR, and in April 1946 was released – “the case is dismissed for lack of prosecution”.
Found a family in Manchuria tbsp. Efforts. He returned with his family in Harbin and in 1946 he worked as an accountant in perfumery laboratory “Gloria”, and in 1947 he set up his own laboratory, where did soap, toothpaste, lipstick for the Chinese market.
He graduated from accounting courses at the Committee of the Union of Soviet Youth in 1950 he was Elected in Storages local citizens of the USSR by the Secretary of the audit Commission (1950) and Secretary of the Board of the Department (1951). Worked in JSC “I. Y. Churin and Co. in the Department of retail trade (1951 – 53 years.), and then as a senior merchandiser purchasing Department (1953 – 55 years.). In 1955 The matkovskiy family was allowed to enter the Soviet Union “for development of virgin and fallow lands.”
Place of residence was defined Priishimskiy the farm Chistopol of Kokshetau region. The first year he worked as a laborer in the production of Samana, and then the accountant MTS. In the autumn of 1956 was invited to work in Priishimskiy secondary school teacher of mathematics and physics. In this school he worked until the autumn of 1981 – exactly a quarter of a century.
Was first a teacher, then a teacher, and later Director of the school. Awarded many titles – “excellence in public education”, “Drummer of the ninth five”, “Veteran of labour”, the medal “For development of virgin lands”, honorary diplomas. He moved with his wife in Tomsk at the invitation of the children (1981), from 1982 to 1993, he lectured in mathematics at the preparatory courses at Tomsk state pedagogical University.
In 1990, Russia has revived the scout movement. In 1993, met scouts from Tomsk Scout Centre and he immediately active (to the extent permitted age) involved in the work of Tomsk scouts, providing assistance and advice. He was in correspondence with his friends – old scouts, whose life has scattered around the world. Including with the scoutmaster O. E. Levitsky, his former scout and current Vice-Chairman of the Committee of the Russian Scout House, living in Santa Rosa (California, USA).
Both scoutmasters began active work on the restoration and delivery in Russia historical and educational material. A large number of books, magazines and brochures have been printed for personal savings O. Levitsky and through I. of matkovskiy transferred to the library of Tomsk scout centre, as well as scout leaders Novosibirsk, Omsk, Perm and other Russian cities. Also was given a package of gifts for Tomsk scouts – scout badges and banner 4th of Harbin detachment of Russian scouts, which had once led the scoutmaster I. the matkovskiy. In a solemn ceremony, the flag was passed in Tomsk scout centre in June 1995
Died Igor Alekseevich 21.01.1996, 84-year life.
We continue the publication of biographical research about your family Alexei Igorevich of matkovskiy, Russian Karbinci, whose family was involved in the maelstrom of the Russian upheaval, but as his strength tried this confusion to stop. People lived, raised children, fought and didn’t notice what they are doing Russian History.
The details below.
Matkowsky (Sakharov), Lydia A. was born in 1882. in, St. Petersburg into the family of a landowner Sakharov, an ethnic Russian nobility. From 1890 till 1897 he studied in a closed women’s educational institution – the Smolny Institute for noble maidens.
Due to its high noble origin, at one time attended as maid of honor about the Empress Alexandra Feodorovna, but after getting married in 1899 for second Lieutenant 7th connectionism battery matkovskiy Alexei ‘ and children had to leave this occupation and devote themselves entirely to the education of children. Bare in 1900 the daughter of Mary (died 1904), in 1903, the son of Michael, in 1906, the son Anatoly, 1909 – son Alex (died 1911), in 1912. the son of Igor.
Until 1918 the family Matkowski lived in St. Petersburg and even went to Alexis ‘ on the front line, where he commanded Courland life-Uhlan regiment and was chief of staff of the 5th cavalry corps. However, in the spring of 1918 the General staff Academy, where her husband was a Professor, was evacuated in Yekaterinburg.
Since that time, the family began to obey the laws of war – the civil war began. In the autumn of 1918, had to move to Omsk, in connection with the appointment of the head of the family by the commander of the 2nd Siberian Steppe corps, and later commander of the Omsk military district and Omsk garrison troops of Admiral A. C. Kolchak. In September 1919, when the evacuation control district they are in Tomsk and soon continue the retreat to the East.
In January 1920, the head of the family Alexey ‘ has been missing. Later it became known that Alex Philipovich was shot “red” in July 1920, Then Lydia Alexeyevna with three children alone emigrated to China, in Harbin. To live, and most importantly, to give to the sons of education, the first time I had to start to sell brought with him some personal things. Sent in the autumn of 1920, the two older sons in Vladivostok, which was not yet busy “red”, for further training in the cadet corps.
When they graduated (senior Michael in 1921, and the average Anatoly in 1922) returned to Harbin, identified them for teaching in higher education – Polytechnic Institute. Anatoly, seeing that it is difficult for mother (teaching in the Polytechnic was very expensive), left the Institute and decided to try his luck in the USA, spent several years working in Alaska, received American citizenship and organized his own import-export office in Shanghai.
Michael, after graduation, began working as the head of the Russian Department of the Chinese Eastern railway and the chief of the 3rd Department of the Bureau of the Russian emigrants (BRAM). Got married, had a daughter. The younger son Igor graduated from the pedagogical Institute, he became the head of the Harbin Russian scout organization, worked at the International Society of Sleeping Cars, as well as in Harbin Trade and Commerce. Married, two sons. As Anatoly never been married, had no children, Lydia Alexeyevna in 1939 moved from Harbin to him in Shanghai.
In 1945, Anatoly returned to the United States. Organized in new York enterprise for the sale of cars, where to him in 1946 moved Lydia Alexeyevna from Shanghai. Never been married, had no children. In 1967, he was involved in a severe car accident and suffered greatly. Fearing that, in the event of his death, the mother will be left alone, found her in a nursing home. Communication with them was lost in 1968, when from a nursing home came from her last letter. Then Lydia Alexeyevna was 86 years old.
We continue to acquaint you with my family Alexei Igorevich of matkovskiy, grandson of Kolchak General Alexei ‘ of matkovskiy shot red in 1920, currently born carbines Alexey Igorevich lives in Tomsk. Today we are talking about the Matkovskiy Mikhail Alekseevich.
Under the picture of the hero of this sketch annotation Alexei Igorevich of matkovskiy:
“Matkovskiy Mikhail Alekseevich – the eldest son of the General, my uncle. Worked in BRAM. He spent 12 years from 25. Rehabilitated. Here in the form of student, Harbin Polytechnic Institute. Other photos I have”
The Matkovskiy Mikhail Alekseevich
Born in 1903, in St. Petersburg in the family of a soldier nationality Russian. On the maternal side from the nobility. He studied at the St. Petersburg cadet corps (1913-1918,), Siberia (Omsk) cadet corps (1918) and in Tomsk real school (1919).
In the winter of 1920, during the civil war, the father of Lieutenant-General, he participated in the First World war, Professor at the Academy of the General staff, commander of the Omsk military district troops of Kolchak – was missing.
Then he, at the age of 16 years, together with his family (mother and two younger brothers) emigrated to China, in Harbin. Later it became known that his father was shot red in June, 1920, To continue his studies in the autumn of 1920 [Michael A.] went to Vladivostok, in the cadet corps, from which he graduated in1921, Returned to Harbin. He studied at the Harbin Polytechnical Institute at the Electromechanical faculty, from which he graduated in 1929, he attended lectures at the Harbin Institute of law (1924-26,).
Married in February 1930 at Smirnova Agrippina G., in December 1930, a daughter Tatiana. Lectured in Chinese Technical School (1930-31,). He worked as an engineer in a private construction company (1932-33, and in the management of CEL (1934) the head of the Russian Department and, at the same time, the Bureau of the Russian Emigrants (BRAM) – the head of the 3rd Department (from 1935 to 1945). After the liberation of Manchuria from the Japanese occupation by Soviet troops (1945) remained in Harbin, although all the rest of the guide BRAM (former military and fighters against the Soviets) immediately to its left.
While the Soviet troops entered the town, it came anarchy, [and Mikhail Alekseevich] took upon himself the difficult duties to establish some order, including in the Russian emigration. Collaborated with the Soviet authorities, giving help on the activities of foreign anti-Soviet organizations, in particular on the Main Japanese military mission, acted as a witness at the Tokyo trials in 1946
But then in August 1946, was returned to the USSR and was arrested last anti-Soviet activity (BRAM). Was imprisoned (several years in solitary confinement in Khabarovsk prison, a General labourer in Kolyma and so on). After the revision of sentence (25 years old to 12) in 1958, was released. Worked in Khabarovsk in the Regional Management of industrial and food products, but continued to cooperate with the KGB.
Having learned from her daughter, Tatiana (she’s in 1955 he traveled from China to the USSR and lives in St. Petersburg) on the death of his wife Agrippina Georgievna of liver cancer, in 1959 he married soslujivitsy Management Zoe Kirillovna, who had from the first marriage of the son of Vladimir and daughter Natalia. In 1964, the task of the authorities, he moved in the village. Mago (the mouth of the Amur river) to work in the enterprise “Exportles” in the composition of the expert group on sending Soviet forests in Japan. Died in 1968., at the age of 65 years in the village. IAHE from liver cancer.
“Among the Russian emigration, living in Manchuria, the personality and activity of matkovskiy M. A. received unequal assessment – from rejection and accusations to the recognition and deep respect as a person and politician. Analyzing the tragic fate of M. A. The matkovskiy come to the conclusion that he was a hostage of honor, believing in Harbin in the promises of the Soviet Consulate on behalf of the Soviet government: “Stay on the ground, do not be afraid, especially the young, who was born here or came in childhood in Manchuria. Nothing will be after such a great victory!” Educated in other moral parameters than workers of SMERSH, he offered himself as a sacrifice trying to save on the whole of the Russian emigration, but was unwilling to cause severe fate of thousands of Russian immigrants. My question later in Khabarovsk in 1962, why he has kept an archive of the 3rd division of the Bureau for the Soviet authorities, he replied: “And what would have happened if he had not left these forms for each immigrant? Then I grabbed all, indiscriminately, and would have suffered much more people.” It is appropriate here to recall the famous” formula KGB: “would the person and the article we will be there”. Hopefully, M. A. The matkovskiy did not know until the end of life that were shot by his friends and colleagues in the BRAM, otherwise it would be for him unbearable agony… Among meetings already on the long path of life one of the most exciting, happy meetings was my meeting with Mikhail Alekseevich Matkowski. For me he was and remains the ideal Man. Impressive appearance, beautiful face, mind and nobility were in his every act and gesture. An amazing performance and energy – and all this in combination with personal modesty, kindness, simplicity irresistibly attracted to him the hearts of the people…”
I. N. Laterals. “MIKHAIL ALEKSEEVICH MATKOVSKIY. In defense of bright name. – Moscow. The Magazine “Russian Atlantis”, No. 17.
We continue to acquaint you with the family of tomic and Karbinci Alexei Igorevich of matkovskiy. He is the grandson of Kolchak General Alexei ‘ of matkovskiy, shot by the Bolsheviks not to say that is not the case: Alexey Philipovich was an opponent of the Soviets and led them armed struggle, as befitted a Russian officer. We talked already about the younger son of General Igor Alekseevich, father Alexei Igorevich. Today we are talking about the Matkovskiy Anatoly Alekseevich.
Under the picture of the hero of this sketch annotation Alexei Igorevich of matkovskiy:
“The matkovskiy Anatoly Alekseevich – average General’s son, my uncle. American. Served in a Japanese concentration camp for 5 years.”
The Matkovskiy Anatoly Alekseevich
Born in 1906, in St. Petersburg in the family of a soldier nationality Russian. On the maternal side from the nobility. He studied at the St. Petersburg cadet corps (1915-1918,), Siberia (Omsk) cadet corps and in Tomsk real school.
When in 1920 during the civil war it became known that [his] father (Lieutenant General, member of the First World war, tenured Professor at the Academy of the General staff, commander of the Omsk military district troops of Kolchak) was missing, he at the age of 14 years old with my family (mother and two brothers) emigrated to China, in Harbin. Later it became known that his father was shot red in 1920
To continue studies [Anatoly Alekseevich] went to Vladivostok, in the cadet corps, from which he graduated in1922, Returned to Harbin. He studied at the Harbin Polytechnical Institute for road construction Department, not after that (because of lack of funds), and in 1923 he left for the United States, where he worked as a laborer in the cities of San Francisco, Seattle and Alaska. Worked at the mine, at the sawmill, in the coal mines.
In 1928, he received American citizenship and continued to work in Alaska in the coal mine, where in 1936 had an accident and broke his leg. In 1937, receiving a representation of some trading firms in the U.S., moved in, Harbin (there, things weren’t), and in1938,, Shanghai, where he organized a private export-import firm, where he in 1939 he moved out, Harbin mother Lydia Alexeyevna.
During the second world war, from 1940 to 1945, was interned by the Japanese authorities (as an American citizen) and placed in a concentration camp. In 1945 he returned to the United States. Organized in new York enterprise for the sale of cars, where to him in 1946, he moved his mother from Shanghai.
Never been married, had no children. In 1967, he was involved in a severe car accident and suffered greatly. Fearing that in the event of his death the mother will be left alone, found her in a nursing home. Communication with them was lost in 1968, when from a nursing home came from her last letter. He was 62 years.