Russian science: Sofia Kovalevskaya
January 15, 1850 was born Sofia Kovalevskaya (nee Corwin Krukovskaya-3  in January 1850, Moscow – 29 January [10 February] 1891, Stockholm) – Russian mathematician and engineer, since 1889, foreign corresponding member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences . The first in Russia and Northern Europe woman professor and the first woman in the world – a professor of mathematics (previously received the title Maria Agnese never taught). Author of the novel “Nihilist” (1884) and “Memories of Childhood”.
Relationship Sofia Kovalevskaya mathematics occurred in early childhood: the walls of her child in the estate Polibino were plastered (accidentally, due to a lack of wallpaper) lecture, Professor Ostrogradskii of differential and integral calculus.
In 1868 Kovalevskaya married Vladimir Kovalevsky and they went abroad.
The most important studies are related to the theory of rigid body rotation. Kovalevskaya opened the third is a classic case of solving the problem of the rotation of a rigid body around a fixed point. It moved forward solution of the problem, started by Leonhard Euler and JL Lagrange.
Proved the existence of an analytic (holomorphic) solutions of the Cauchy problem for systems of differential equations with partial derivatives, to investigate the problem of the equilibrium of the Laplace rings of Saturn, was the second approximation.
Solved the problem of bringing one of the classes of Abelian integrals of the third rank of elliptic integrals. She has also worked in the field of potential theory, mathematical physics, celestial mechanics.
In 1889 received the big prize of the Paris Academy for the study of the rotation of a heavy asymmetric top.
In Russian from literary works Kowalewski appeared: “Memories of George Elliot” (“Russian Thought”, 1886, № 6); family chronicle “Memories of Childhood” (“Bulletin of Europe”, 1890, № 7 and 8); “Three days in peasant University in Sweden” (“Northern Herald”, 1890, № 12); posthumous poem (“The Herald of Europe”, 1892, № 2); together with other (translated from Swedish novel «Vae victis», excerpt from the novel in the Riviera), these works came out a separate collection under the title: “The literary works of S. K.” (SPb., 1893).