The great reformer
“When the King obeys the law, then nobody don’t dare to resist him”
Peter I Great
Physically strong, active, curious, from childhood Petr Alekseevich mastered with the participation of the Palace masters of the Armory, carpentry, blacksmithing, printing crafts. Great influence on the formation of his Hobbies and interests had foreigners (I. C. Bruce, P. I. Gordon, F. J. Lefort). At first they were teachers in various fields, and in the future – his companions. The king from childhood knew many foreign languages.
After the death of Feodor Alekseevich in 1682., and the result of a compromise between clans Naryshkins and Miloslavskie, Peter 10 years of age, was erected on the Russian throne, along with half brother Ivan V . Their sister Sophia Alekseyevna became regent , which ruled Russia in 1682-1689. In the years of her reign, Peter, together with his mother lived in exile in the village of Transfiguration, where he formed of his peers 2 “amusing” battalion headed And. And. Buturlin and F. I. Romodanovsky.
Later they became real military units – Semenovsky and Preobrazhensky regiments – the main Peter’s army. He also met with Alexander Menshikov, the son of the court groom, who became his friend for life. Peter learned to appreciate not nobility and belonging to a noble family, and the abilities of man, his ingenuity and dedication.
In the 1680’s, under the leadership of the Dutch Fleet of Timmerman and Russian master R. Kartseva Peter studied shipbuilding, and in 1684 was sailing on his ship on the Yauza river, and later on Pereyaslavl lake, where he laid the 1st shipyard for the construction of ships.
27 January 1689 Peter the decree mother married Eudoxia Lopukhina, daughter of a Moscow nobleman. But the newlyweds spent time with friends in the German quarter. In 1691 he became acquainted with the daughter of a German craftsman Anna Mons, which became his lover. But according to Russian tradition he married, was considered an adult and could claim to an independent Board.
But the Queen Sophia did not want to lose power and organized the Streltsy revolt against Peter. Hearing this, Peter disappeared into the Trinity-Sergius Lavra.
Since childhood, Peter studied carpentry and subsequently created a strong Navy.
Soon Peter came to himself and brutally suppressed the uprising. In September 1689, the Princess Sophia was placed in the convent, and her supporters were executed. In 1689, removing power from the sister, Petr Alekseevich was actually a king. After death his mother in 1695, and in 1696 – brother-ruler Ivan V, he 29 January 1696 became the autocrat, single king and legally.
Barely settled on the throne, Peter the great personally participated in the Azov campaigns against Turkey (1695-1696,), which ended with the capture of Azov and access to the shore of the sea of Azov. Thus was opened the 1st exit Russia in the southern sea.
Under the guise of studying marine and shipbuilding Peter went a volunteer with the Great Embassy in 1697-1698 in Europe. There under the name of Peter Mikhailov, the king took a full course of artillery Sciences in Brandenburg and Konigsberg, he worked as a carpenter in the shipyards of Amsterdam.
He studied naval architecture and drawing plans, graduated from a theoretical course of shipbuilding in England. By his order in England was bought instruments, weapons, books, invited foreign artists and scholars. The British talked about Peter, that there was no such craft, which would be the Russian king is not met.
At the same time the Great Embassy prepared the creation of the Northern Alliance against Sweden, which finally took shape only 2 years later (1699.). In the summer of 1697 Peter held talks with the Austrian Emperor, but when he received the news of the impending revolt of the Streltsy. August 26, 1698, the investigation not spared none of the rebels.
The Emperor was actively engaged in the improvement of old cities and new construction.
In February 1699, by his orders were dissolved unreliable Streltsy regiments and began the formation of a regular soldier. Were soon signed decrees, under pain of fines and whipping instructing men “cut beard”, to wear the European sample, and women discover the hair. With 1700 introduced a new calendar year beginning on January 1 instead of September 1) and the chronology of “Christmas”. All these acts of Peter foresaw breaking old habits.
However, Peter began a serious transformation in the governance of the country. For more than 35 years of the reign he was able to spend a lot of reforms in the field of culture and education. So was eliminated the monopoly of the clergy in education, open secular schools. When Peter opened the School of mathematical and navigational Sciences (1701), Medical-surgical school (1707) – future Military medical Academy, Naval Academy (1715), Engineering and Artillery school (1719), school of translation at the boards. In 1719 he began to act 1st in Russian history Museum – the Cabinet of curiosities of the public library.
Published primers, educational cards, was the beginning of a systematic study of the geography of the country and mapping. Literacy contributed to the reform of the alphabet (cursive replaced alphabet, 1708), the output of the 1st Russian printed newspaper “Vedomosti” (1703). In the era of Peter the great built a lot of buildings for public and cultural institutions, the architectural ensemble of Peterhof.
Returning to Russia, Peter the great began its transforming activity.
However, the reform efforts of Peter I was in a bitter struggle with the conservative opposition. Reforms caused the resistance of the nobility and clergy (1697).
In 1700 Peter I signed with Turkey Constantinople world and started a war with Sweden in the Union with Poland and Denmark. Opponent Peter was 18-year-old Swedish king Karl XII. In November 1700, they first encounter with Peter. Army of Charles XII won this battle, since Russia does not have a strong army. But Peter learned the lesson from this defeat and actively began strengthening of the armed forces of Russia. Already in 1702, all land within the Fields to the Gulf of Finland were purified from the Swedish troops.
However, the war with Sweden, called the great Northern war still continued. on June 27, 1709, under the fortress of Poltava, occurred the great Poltava battle ended in the complete defeat of the Swedish army. Peter himself led his troops and participated in the battle along with all. Historians write that on the same day Peter made a great feast, and invited him captive Swedish generals and give them back their swords, said:
“… drink to the health of you, my teachers in the art of war”.
After the battle of Poltava Peter has forever cemented its access to the Baltic sea. Henceforth, foreign countries were forced to reckon with the strong power of Russia.
Emperor Peter I have done a lot for Russia. When it industry was actively developed, expanded trade. Throughout Russia began to build new cities, and covered in old it. With the emergence of the Russian market has increased the economic potential of the Central government. And the reunification of Ukraine and Russia and Siberia has turned Russia.
In Peter the great’s time, we continued exploration of mineral resources, was built of iron and weapons factories in the Urals and Central Russia, was laid channels and new strategic roads were built naval shipyard, and with them appeared and new cities.
However, the severity of the great Northern war and reforms imposed a heavy burden on the peasantry, which constituted the majority of the Russian population. Discontent broke in the popular uprisings (Astrakhan uprising, 1705; The peasant war under the leadership of K. A. Bulavin, 1707-1708; excitement Bashkirs 1705-1711 years), which was suppressed by Peter with cruelty and indifference.
Thanks to the efforts of Peter the great in Russia was opened the first Museum of curiosities.
After the suppression of the Bulavin revolt Peter held a regional reform 1708-1710, which has divided the country into 8 provinces headed by governors and Governor-generals. In n. provinces were divided into provinces, provinces into districts.
The decree 1714 equalized estates and estates, was introduced majorat (granting the right to inheritance of property to the eldest of the sons, the aim of which was intended to ensure stable growth of noble tenure.
Strengthening its position on the Baltic sea, Peter the great in 1703 laid at the mouth of the Neva river, the city of St. Petersburg, which turned into a sea trading port, designed to serve the needs of the whole of Russia. The Foundation of this city Peter “opened a window to Europe“.
In 1720 he has written Marine Charter, completed the reform of municipal government. Were created Chief magistrate in the capital (as a Board) and the magistrates in the cities.
In 1721 Peter was finally signed the Treaty of Uusikaupunki (Nystad ended the Northern war. On Nishtadtskomu world Russia regained separated from it Ladoga, Novgorod land and acquired Vyborg in Finland and the whole Baltic region with Ravel and Riga. For this victory of Peter I received the title of “Father of the Fatherland, Emperor of Russia, Peter the Great”. Thus formally completed a long process of education of the Russian Empire.
In 1722 published the rankings of all military, civil and court positions and official ranks for which the ancestral nobility could get “for exemplary service to the Emperor and the state.”
The great Emperor is dedicated to the many monuments in Russia, one of the most famous is St. Petersburg.
Persian campaign of Peter in 1722-1723, he secured for Russia in the Western Caspian coast with the cities of Derbent and Baku. There under Peter I for the first time in the history of Russia were established permanent diplomatic missions and consulates.
In 1724, was issued a decree on the opening of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences with high school and University.
In October 1724, Peter caught a cold, rescuing soldiers were drowned in the flood in the Gulf of Finland. The king died of pneumonia on January 28, 1725, leaving a Testament of his heir.
Later Peter was buried in the Peter and Paul Cathedral in the Peter and Paul fortress.
Peter Alekseevich The Great (1672-1725). The Russian King (1682). The first Russian Emperor (1721), a distinguished statesman, diplomat and military commander.
“Ungrateful is man without a conscience, to believe him should not. Better open enemy than a dastardly smoothie and a hypocrite; this bad for humanity”
Peter I Great